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Ingredients: Converting Non-Paleo Recipes to Paleo

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Substitutions

Suggestions for Adapting Recipes

Milk - nut milk, coconut milk
Butter - olive oil, bacon grease, coconut oil
Yogurt - coconut milk
Sour cream - chilled coconut milk combined with a few drops of lemon juice
Whip cream - chilled coconut milk flavored with a bit of honey or orange
zest

Vinegar - small amounts can be substituted with lemon or lime juice. As a
general rule, tomato recipes such as salsa would use lime juice, fruit
recipes would use lemon juice.
Cider vinegar - apple juice

Alcohol - sometimes very hard to adapt. In some cases the alcohol can
simply be deleted altogether. Or depending on the recipe, substituted with
chicken or beef broth. Juice would also be an alternative, grape, orange
or apple. In some cases a combination of both broth and juice.

White sugar - using half the amount called for, substitute honey
Brown sugar - using half the amount called for, substitute maple syrup
Molasses - honey or maple syrup

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Other Substitutions

1 teaspoon dried herbs for 1 tablespoon fresh herbs

1 tablespoon instant minced onion, rehydrated, to replace 1 small fresh
onion

1/8 teaspoon garlic powder instead of 1 small pressed clove of garlic

substitute 2 tablespoons of flour or 1 tablespoon cornstarch for 1
tablespoon of arrowroot to use as a thickening agent

mix 1/2 cup tomato sauce with 1/2 cup of water to make 1 cup tomato juice

use canned pumpkin/butternut squash to replace tomatoes and its sauces and 
pastes

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Chinese Food Substitutes

>are any substitutes for the usual non-paleo suspects: soy sauce, hoisin
>sauce, rice vinegar.

In some recipes, you can try fish sauce instead of soy sauce. It has a
similar flavor. It is made with anchovy extract and sea salt. Toasted sesame
oil can give the flavor you are looking for as well. Don't be stingy with
the salt. Use a good sea salt like Maldon or Fleur de Sel. Go with the
garnishes (toasted sesame seeds, sliced scallions), and you might not miss
the soy sauce. Fermented foods have a unique flavor that is hard to
duplicate, but toasted seeds and anchovies come close.

By Stacie Tolen. Posted to the PaleoRecipe Mailing List, Nov. 2000

2012 update:
People are now using coconut animos to replace soy sauce. It is sweeter and 
less salty than soy sauce.

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Equivalents

Approximate Measurements

1 lemon = 3 tablespoons juice
1 lemon = 1 teaspoon grated peel
1 orange = 1/3 cup juice
1 orange = 2 teaspoons grated peel
1 pound unshelled walnuts = 1-1/2 to 1-3/4 cups shelled
1 pound unshelled almonds = 3/4 to 1 cup shelled
8 to 10 egg whites = 1 cup
12 to 14 egg yolk = 1 cup

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Equivalents

3 tsp. = 1 tbsp.
2 tbsp. = 1/8 c.
4 tbsp = 1/4 c.
8 tbsp. = 1/2 c.
16 tbsp. = 1 c.
5 tbsp. + 1 tsp. = 1/3 c.
12 tbsp. = 3/4 c.
4 oz. = 1/2 c.
8 oz. = 1 c.
5/8 c. = 1/2 c. + 2 tbsp.
7/8 c. = 3/4 c. + 2 tbsp.
16 oz. = 1 lb.
1 oz. = 2 tbsp. fat or liquid
2 c. fat = 1 lb.
2 c. = 1 pt.
2 pt. = 1 qt.
1 qt. = 4 c.
a few grains = less than 1/8 tsp.
pinch is as much as can be taken between tip of finger and thumb
speck = less than 1/8 tsp.

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Metric Conversion

1 tsp.   =   4.9 cc
1 tbsp.  =  14.7 cc
1/3 c.   =  28.9 cc
1/8 c.   =  29.5 cc
1/4 c.   =  59.1 cc
1/2 c.   = 118.3 cc
3/4 c.   = 177.5 cc
1 c.     = 236.7 cc
2 c.     = 473.4 cc
1 fl oz. =  29.5 cc
4 oz.    = 118.3 cc
8 oz.    = 236.7 cc
1 pt.    = 473.4 cc
1 qt.    = 0.946 liters
1 gal.   =   3.7 liters

1 dry oz. = 28.3 grams
1 lb. = 0.454 kilograms

From: Patti Vincent
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Terms

British ingredients and cooking terms and their American counterparts

BritishAmerican
 
AleStrong beer
Anchovy essenceAnchovy paste
AubergineEggplant
AshetMeat dish
 
Bacon rashersBacon slices
Baking trayCookie sheet
BangersSausages
BannockFlat, round cakes
BapHambuger bun
BeetrootBeets
Belly of porkPork arm steak
Bicarbonate of sodaBaking soda
BiscuitsCrackers,cookies
BlaeberriesBilberries, raspberries or blueberries
Blind pie caseEmpty pie shell
Boiling fowlStewing fowl
Blood heat (98.6 F)Lukewarm
Braising steakChuck steak
Broad beansFava, lima or java beans
Bully beefCorned beef
 
Cake mixtureCake batter
CasePie shell
Castor sugarGranulated sugar
Cheddar, ScottishCheddar, American
ChicoryEndive
ChilliChili pepper
Chipolata sausagesCocktail sausages
ChipsFrench fries
Clotted creamWhipped heavy whipping cream
Coriander leavesCilantro
CornflourCornstarch
Cos lettuceRomaine
CourgetteSmall zucchini, summer squash
Creamed (potatoes)Mashed
CrispsPotato Chips
 
Demerara sugarBrown sugar, light
Digestive biscuitsGraham crackers
Double creamWhipping cream
DrippingMeat drippings
 
EssenceExtract
 
FaggotMeatball
Fairy cakeCupcake
FarlsQuarters
FarolaMilled wheat or semolina
FatsShortening
Finnan haddieSmoked haddock
French beanGreen bean
Frying panSkillet
 
GammonHam
GelatineGelatin
GirnelCanister or meal chest
GirdleGriddle
GlacÚCandied
Goblet (of liquidizer)Bowl or container (of blender)
Golden syrupLight corn syrup
Greaseproof paperWax paper, parchment paper
Green cured baconUnsmoked bacon
Grill, aBroiler
Grill, toBroil
Grill panBroiling pan
Gut (fish)Clean
 
Haricot beansNavy or white beans
HobStovetop
HodgilsOatmeal dumpling
 
IcingFrosting
Icing sugarConfectioners' sugar
 
Jacket potatoBaked potato
JamPreserves
JellyJello
Jelly bagUse several layers of cheesecloth
Joint (of meat)Roast (of meat)
 
KailKale
KippersKippered herrings
Kitchen paperPaper towels
Knead/knock back (dough)   Punch down
Knuckle of vealVeal shanks
 
Lettuce, aHead of lettuce
Liquidizer/MixerBlender/Mixer
 
MaizeCorn
MangetoutSnow peas
Marmite®brand name pungent yeast extract spread/flavouring
MarrowGiant zucchini type squash
Middle neck of lambNeck of lamb
MinceGround meat
Mince, toGrind
Minced beefGround beef
MincedmeatPie filling of dried fruit, peel, brandy, etc. very occasionally contains meat
Mixed spiceAllspice
Morello cherriesSour cherries
Mushroom ketchupPungent condiment (try 1/2 tsp olive oil, 1/2 tsp vinegar & 1 tsp beef stock)
 
Neepsmashed yellow turnip, rutabaga
Nut (of butter)Pat
 
Offalvariety or organ meats (liver, heart, kidney)
 
Packet puff pastryPrepared puff pastry
Pickled porkCured pork
PigeonSquab
Pine kernelsPine nuts
Pinhead oatmealIrish oatmeal
PipsSeeds
PluckOrgan meats, selection of
PreservePreserves
PuddingA steamed, baked or boiled dish, sweet or meat/veg base
Pudding clothCheesecloth
Plain flourAll-purpose flour
PolythenePlastic wrap [Saran Wrap®]
PrawnsLarge shrimp
ProveRise
Punnetberry basket, about a pint or 250g by weight
 
RashersBacon slices
Ratafia biscuitsAlmond flavoured cookies or dried macaroons
RocketArugula
 
Salt beefCorned beef brisket
Sandwich tinsRound-layer pans
ScallionScallion/green onion
Scag end neck of lambNeck of lamb
SealSear
Self-raising flour3/4 cup all-purpose flour sifted with 1 tsp baking powder & 1/4 tsp salt
Seville orangesto each quart of sliced naval/Florida oranges add one lemon sliced thin
Sharon fruitPersimmon
SherbetPowdered candy
Shredded suetChopped beef suet
Sieve, toSift
Silver beetSwiss chard
SilversideTop round beef
Single creamLight cream
SirloinPorterhouse Steak
Soft brown sugarLight brown sugar
Soya sauceSoy sauce
SpurtleWooden spoon or spatula
Squash (cordial)Juice drink from concentrate
StalkRemove stalks
Stewing steakBraising beef
Stick celeryCelery stalk
Stoned raisinsSeedless raisins
Streaky baconRegular bacon
Strong plain flourUnbleached white flour
SultanasSeedless white raisins
 
TartPie
Tartlet panMuffin pan
TattiesPotatoes
Top and tail (gooseberries)Clean
TreacleMolasses
 
Vegetable millFood mill
 
WhiskBeat, whip
WholemealWholewheat
 
From A Feast of Scotland by Janet Warren and other sources.
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